Screening for levels of C-reactive protein and other compounds recently found to be associated with coronary heart disease may not help physicians predict risk for the condition with any more accuracy than traditional major risk factors.
Major risk factors for coronary heart disease ( CHD ), which include age, race, sex, blood pressure, diabetes, total and HDL cholesterol levels, smoking status and the use of medications to control blood pressure, predict an individual's probability of developing the condition with reasonable accuracy. Most are also modifiable, so physicians can advise patients on how to change their lifestyle to reduce their risk, according to background information in the article.
In recent years, researchers have identified additional risk factors and chemical markers associated with CHD, such as C-reactive protein, a compound in the blood that signifies inflammation caused by injury or infection.
Aaron R. Folsom, at University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, and colleagues with the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities ( ARIC ) Study assessed the benefits of screening patients' levels of 19 novel chemical markers, including C-reactive protein, antibodies against infectious diseases, B vitamins and compounds involved in the functioning of blood vessel lining. The ARIC Study enrolled a total of 15,792 adults between the ages of 45 and 74 years in 1987-1989. The participants underwent a physical examination, including assessment of major risk factors, at the beginning of the study and every three years afterward. At four times during the follow-up period, researchers collected blood and DNA samples for analysis. Patients continue to be tracked for the development of coronary heart disease.
Several of the compounds tested, including C-reactive protein and vitamin B6, were significantly associated with coronary heart disease. The researchers looked at each marker and assessed the probability that a participant who developed coronary heart disease within a five-year period had a higher risk score than a participant who did not develop CHD. Using this method, they determined that most of the novel markers did not significantly increase the ability of physicians to predict coronary heart disease.
"Although the significant and independent association of a novel risk factor with coronary heart disease often does not equate to improved prediction of coronary heart disease beyond that of basic risk factors, this does not imply that the novel risk factor is pathophysiologically unimportant or unsuitable as a target for intervention," the authors write. " Based on the totality of evidence, however, C-reactive protein level does not emerge as a clinically useful addition to basic risk factor assessment for identifying patients at risk of a first coronary heart disease event."
Routine screening is not warranted for any of the other 18 novel risk factors tested either, the authors conclude. " On the other hand, our findings reinforce the utility of major, modifiable risk factor assessment to identify individuals at risk for coronary heart disease for preventive action," they write.
Source: Archives of Internal Medicine, 2006
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